the body of law that defines criminal offences and the penalties for
convicted offenders. There are five main goals of criminal justice:
retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation and restitution.
The two basic elements of a crime are the act of doing that which is
criminal, and the intention to carry it out. In Latin this is called the
actus reus and the mens rea. In many crimes however, there
is no necessity of showing criminal intention, which is why the term
"strict liability" is used.